**Perfect square **number is an integer which is the product of two equal integers.

Thus,

81 = 9 x 9 = (-9) x (-9) is a square number.

Let us take another example, 144 = 12 x 12 = (-12) x (-12) is also a square number.

We know that, thare are two possibilities for a sqaure root; one ** positive **and another ** negative. **When we say **the square root, we always take the positivve sqaure root as a convvention.**

*Given a number ‘a’, we say a number b is a square root of ‘a’ if a = b x b = b²*

For any two numbers * a *and *b, √(a x b) = √a x √b, *and *√(a/b) = √a/√b* (provided *b ≠ 0*)

**Example 1**: Find the square root of 70.56

**Solution: **We write 70.56 in the form, 70.56 = ^{7056}/_{100 }and find the square root of 7056 and 100 seperately using factorisation. Observe 7056 = 16 x 441 = 16 x 9 x 49 = 4² x 3² x 7²

Hence √7056 = 4 x 3 x 7 = 84. We also have, √100 = 10. Thus, √(70.56) = √(^{7056}/_{100 }) = ^{84}/_{10 }= 8.4

**Example 2: ** find the square root of 0.017424

**Solution: **Write 0.017424 = ^{17424}/_{1000000 . }Observe, 17424 = 18 x 968 = 18 x 8 x 121 = 3² x 4² x 11² and 1000000 = 1000². Hence √17424 = 18 x 8 x 121 = 132. We also have, √1000000 = 1000. Thus, √(0.017424) = √(^{17424}/_{1000000 }) = ^{132}/_{1000 }= 0.132

The factorisation method of finding the square root of a perfect square may become more difficult whenthe number is too large. Here let us study aanother method called division method, which helps in finding the square root of positive decimal numbers. We shall see that we can use this method for finding the square root of a non-perfect squares up to some decimal places.

Click on → Square root exercise 1.2.1 to get the solved problems of exercise 1.2.1

**1.1.2 Division method for finding the sqaure root**

Division method avoids this lengthy and tedious factorisation.

**Division method: **a method of finding the square root of a given number using divison process, based on the identity *(a + b)² = a² + (2a + b)b. * This also helps to find square root of non-perfect squares or decimal numbers to any degree of accuracy as required.

**Example 3: **Find the sqaure root of 841.

**Solution: **We do it in several steps:

**Step 1: **Make several groups of pairs of digits startinng from the units place and mving to its left. If the number is odd, the last group contains only one digit. Thus we write 841 as 8 41

**Step 2: **Find the largest number whose square is less than or equal to the number in the left most group. (We have 2² < 8 < 3² and hence the required number here is 2.) Take this number both as divisor and quotient, and the left most group as divident. Complete the division and get the remainder. (Here the divisor is 2, the dividend is 8, the quotient is 2 and the remainder is 4.)

**Step 3: **Bring down the next group and write it next to the remainder . (Bring down 41 and write it next to the remainder 4, we get 441 as the new dividend)

**Step 4: **Add the quotient and the divisor, and enter it with a blank space on its right. (Add 2 and 2 to get 4 and enterit with a blank space.)

**Step 5: **Now guess the largest possible digit to fill the blank space which will also be the new digit in the expected square root such that the product of the new divisor and the new quotient (that is the guessed digit) does not exceed the new dividend.

(Observe that 48 x 8 = 384 < 441 and 49 x 9 = 441. Thus the new digit will be 9.) Now enter the new digit to the right of the number on top and the new product below the new dividend and find the remainder. (Enter 9 after 2 on the top. Fill the blank space with 9 so that the new divisor is 49. Also write the new product 49 x 9 = 441 below the new dividend 441 and get the remainder 0.)

**Step 6: **Repeat the **steps 3, 4, 5 ** till all the groups are exhausted. If the given number is perfect square, we get the last remainder 0. Now the number at the top is the required square root.

Here at the end of step 5, we see that all the groups are exhausted and the last remainder is 0. Hence √841 = 29.

Thus, 841 = 400 + 441 = 4 x 100 + 49 x 9 = 2² x 100 + (40 + 9) x 9. However, 29 = 20 + 9. Hence, 29² = (20 + 9)² = 20² + (2 x 20 x 9) + 9² = 2² x 100 + (2 x 20 + 9 ) x 9 = 2² x 100 + 49 x 9

**Example 4: ** Find the square root of 6889.

**Solution: **Let us follow the following steps:

**Step 1: **Group the following number as 68 89

**Step 2: **The largest number whose square does not exceed 68 is 8. Since 8² < 68 < 9². We take 8 both as divisor and quotient, and the group 68 as dividend. We get the remainder 4.

**Step 3: **We bring down the next group 89 and write it to the right of the remainder 4 to get 489 as the new dividend.

**Step 4: **Add the divisor 8 and the quotient 8 to get 16. Enter this with a blank space on its right.

**Step 5: ** Observe that 162 x 2 = 324 and 163 x 3 = 489. Hence the new digit in the square root is 3. The new divisor is 163 and the quotient is 3 whose product gives 489. The remainder will be 0. This completes the division method.

We thus get √6889 = 83. Here we split again,

6889 = 6400 + 489 = 80² + (163 x 3) = 80² + (2 x 80 + 3) x 3 = 80² + 2 x 80 x 3 + 3²

= (80 + 3)² = 83² . We can see that the reason for getting the divisors 8 and 163.

**Example 5: ** Find the square root of 96721

**Solution: **

We consolidate all the steps and write them in a single frame work. First group 96721 as 9 67 21. Here 9 is the first group and 3² = 9. Hence 3 is the first digit in the square root. Take this both as divisor and quotient, and 9 as the dividend. The remainder is 0. Bring-down the next group 67. the new dividend is 67. Add the divisor and the quotient, we het 6. Since 61 x 1 = 61 < 67 and 62 x 2 = 124 > 67, the next digit in the qoutient is 1. The new qoutient is 1 and the new divisor is 61. We get the remainder S 67 – 61 = 6.

Bring-down the next group; the new dividend is 621. Add the divisor and the quotient, we het 6. Since 61 + 1 = 62. Now 621 x 1 = 621. Hence the next digit in the qoutient is 1. Take 1 as quotient and 621 as new divisor. We get 0 as the remainder. This completes the division method. Therefore, √96721 = 311.

**Example 6**: Find the sqaure root of 2002225.

Solution:

Thus, √(2002225) = 1415.

Suppose the given number is not a perfect square. Then it lies between to consecutive perfect squares. Thus we can add some integer to get the next perfect square or subtract some integer to get the previous perfect square.

**Example 7: ** Find the least number to be subtracted from 2011 to get a perfect square.

**Solution: **

As earlier, we follow the steps of finding the square root using division method. Observe 84 x 4 = 336 < 411 and 85 x 5 = 425 > 411. Thus 2011 = 44^{2} + 75. Hence the least number to be subtracted from 2011 to get the perfect square is 75. The perfect square we get is 44^{2}.

**Example 8: **Find the least number to be added to 9300 to get a perfect square.

**solution: **We use the steps of finding the square root till all the groups are exhausted.

The calculation shows that 9300 > 96^{2 }and 9300 = 96^{2} + 84. Hence we have to look for the next square, 97^{2}. Hence we have to add 109 to get the next perfect square.

**Example 9: **A square-field has area 3,32,929 m^{2}. It has to be fenced using barbed wire. The barbed wire should go round the field 5times. The barbed wire is available in bundles of 100 m length. The vendor sells the wire only in complete bundles. How many bundles have to be bought?

**Solution: **First we find the perimeter of square-field by finding its side length. We use division method.

We obtain √(332929) = 577. Hence the perimeter of the field is 577 x 4 = 2,308 m. The length of the required barbed wire is 5 x 2308 = 11,540 m.

We know, 115 x 110 = 11500 < 11540, and 116 x 100 = 11600 > 11540. Hence the number of bundles to be bought is 116.

Click on → Square root Exercise 1.1.2 to get the solved problems of exercise 1.2.2

**1.1.3 Square root of a decimal number which is the square of another decimal number**

Consider the squares of some decimal number;

(1.2)^{2} = 1.44;

(2.13)^{2} = 4.5369;

(1.414)^{2} = 1.999396;

**For a decimal number to be square of some other decimal number it should have even number of digits after the decimal point.**

**Example 10: **Find the square root of 2.0164

**Solution:**

Therefore, square root of 2.0164 = 1.42

Note:

**(1) Put a zero if necessary and make sure that you have even number of decimal points.**

**(2) Start from the rightmost digit and move leftwards making of digits, as in the case of a whole number.**

** Example 11: **Find the square root of 0.009409

**Solution:**

Therefore, square root of 0.009409 = 0.097

Click on → Square root Exercise 1.1.3 to get the solved problems of exercise 1.1.3

**1.1.4 Moving closer to the square root of a non-perfect square**

**Round off: ** A process adopted for approximation. The accuracy of the approximation is measured using the number of decimal digits.

While rounding off we follow the following rule: if the last digit is more than or equal to 5, we round it off to the next multiple of 10; if the last digit is less than 5, we round it off to the previous multiple of 10. Rounding off is only a process of approximating the given number by close convenient number. Some times you get a number smaller than the given number and some times a larger number.

A necessary cndition for a decimal number to be the square root of another decimal number is that it should have even number of decimal digits.Writing any number of zeros after the last decimal digit does not affect the number; thus 2:346 = 2.34600000000000000000

Write some zeros at the end so that there are even number of digits after the decimal point. Then pair two digits at a time starting from right most digit and movin leftwards. Thus 2.346 can be written as 2.23600000 and this can be paired as 2.34 60 00 00.

**Example 12:** Round off 12.341567 to 3 decimal places

**Solution:** We observe that 12.342 is nearer to 12.341567 than 12.341. Hence the answer is 12.342.

**Example 13: **Find the square root of 3 correct to 4 decimal places

**Solution: **Here we find the square root of3 upto 5 decimal places and round it off to 4 decimal places.

Here the fifth decimal digit is 5 and following our convention we round off 1.73205 to 1.7321. Hence 1.7321 is equal to √3 correct to 4 decimal places.

**Example 14: **Find the approximation of √(3.11) both from below and above 3 decimal places

**Solution:**

We find the square root of 3.11 up to 3 decimal places.

Thus, the square root of √(3.11) to decimal places is 1.763.

Observe that (1.763)^{2} = 3.108169 < 3.11 < 3.111696 = (1.764)^{2}. Thus, 1.763 is the approximation from below of 3.11 to 3 decimal places; and 1.764 is the approximation from above of 3.11 to 3 decimal places.

Click on → Square Root EXERCISE 1.1.4 to get the solved problems of exercise 1.1.4

**Glossary:**

**Perfect square:** a number of the form *b x b = b²,*where *b *is an integer.

**Square root: **if * a = b²,* then *b *is square root of ‘*a’ *and written as √a.

**Division method: **a method of finding the square root of a given number using divison process, based on the identity *(a + b)² = a² + (2a + b)b. * This also helps to find square root of non-perfect squares or decimal numbers to any degree of accuracy as required.

**Approximation: **a number which is very close to a given number, as close as one requires.

**Round off: ** A process adopted for approximation. The accuracy of the approximation is measured using the number of decimal digits.

**Points to remember:**

- For any two numbers
*a*and*b, √(a x b) = √a x √b,*and*√(a/b) = √a/√b*(provided*b ≠ 0*) - A necessary cndition for a decimal number to be the square root of another decimal number is that it should have even number of decimal digits.
- Writing any number of zeros after the last decimal digit does not affect the number; thus 2:346 = 2.34600000000000000000
- Write some zeros at the end so that there are even number of digits after the decimal point. Then pair two digits at a time starting from right most digit and movin leftwards. Thus 2.346 can be written as 2.23600000 and this can be paired as 2.34 60 00 00.
- If you need to find the square root of a number correct to
*n*decimal places,take sufficient number of zeros at the end so that there are*2n*digits after the decimal point. Then pair off and find the square root by division method. - If you want to find the square root of a number correct to
*n*decimal places, first find the square root to*(n + 1)*places and round off the last digit. - While rounding off we follow the following rule: if the last digit is more than or equal to 5, we round it off to the next multiple of 10; if the last digit is less than 5, we round it off to the previous multiple of 10.
- Rounding off is only a process of approximating the given number by close convenient number. Some times you get a number smaller than the given number and some times a larger number.

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