**1. Find the union of each of the following pairs of sets: **

**(i) X = {1, 3, 5}; Y = {1, 2, 3} **

**(ii) A = {a, e, i, o, u}; B = {a, b, c} **

**(iii) A = {x: x is a natural number and multiple of 3} B = {x: x is a natural number less than 6} **

**(iv) A = {x: x is a natural number and 1 < x ≤ 6} B = {x: x is a natural number and 6 < x < 10} **

**(v) A = {1, 2, 3}; B = Φ **

Solution:

(i) X = {1, 3, 5} Y = {1, 2, 3} X ∪ Y= {1, 2, 3, 5}

(ii) A = {a, e, i, o, u} B = {a, b, c} A ∪ B = {a, b, c, e, i, o, u}

(iii) A = {x: x is a natural number and multiple of 3} = {3, 6, 9 …}

B = {x: x is a natural number less than 6} = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

A ∪ B = {1, 2, 4, 5, 3, 6, 9, 12 …}

∴ A ∪ B = {x: x = 1, 2, 4, 5 or a multiple of 3}

(iv) A = {x: x is a natural number and 1 < x ≤ 6} = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

B = {x: x is a natural number and 6 < x < 10} = {7, 8, 9}

A ∪ B = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}

∴ A∪ B = {x: x ∈ N and 1 < x < 10} (v) A = {1, 2, 3}, B = Φ A ∪ B = {1, 2, 3}

**2. Let A = {a, b}, B = {a, b, c}. Is A ⊂ B? What is A ∪ B? **

Solution:

Here, A = {a, b} and B = {a, b, c}

Yes, A ⊂ B.

A ∪ B = {a, b, c} = B

**3: If A and B are two sets such that A ⊂ B, then what is A ∪ B? **

Solution:

If A and B are two sets such that A ⊂ B, then A ∪ B = B.

**4: If A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {3, 4, 5, 6}, C = {5, 6, 7, 8} and D = {7, 8, 9, 10}**

**find **

**(i) A ∪ B **

**(ii) A UC **

**(iii) B ∪ C **

**(iv) B ∪ D **

**(v) A ∪ B ∪ C **

**(vi) A ∪ B ∪ D **

**(vii) B ∪ C ∪ D **

Solution:

A = {1, 2, 3, 4], B = {3, 4, 5, 6}, C = {5, 6, 7, 8} and D = {7, 8, 9, 10}

(i) A ∪ B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

(ii) A ∪ C = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}

(iii) B ∪ C = {3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}

(iv) B ∪ D = {3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}

(v) A ∪ B ∪ C = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}

(vi) A ∪ B ∪ D = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}

(vii) B ∪ C ∪ D = {3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}

**5. Find the intersection of each pair of sets: **

**(i) X = {1, 3, 5} Y = {1, 2, 3} **

**(ii) A = {a, e, i, o, u} B = {a, b, c} **

**(iii) A = {x: x is a natural number and multiple of 3} B = {x: x is a natural number less than 6} **

**(iv) A = {x: x is a natural number and 1 < x ≤ 6} B = {x: x is a natural number and 6 < x < 10} **

**(v) A = {1, 2, 3}, B = Φ **

Solution:

(i) X = {1, 3, 5}, Y = {1, 2, 3}

X ∩ Y = {1, 3}

(ii) A = {a, e, i, o, u}, B = {a, b, c}

A ∩ B = {a}

(iii) A = {x: x is a natural number and multiple of 3} = (3, 6, 9 …}

B = {x: x is a natural number less than 6} = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

∴ A ∩ B = {3}

(iv) A = {x: x is a natural number and 1 < x ≤ 6} = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

B = {x: x is a natural number and 6 < x < 10} = {7, 8, 9}

A ∩ B = Φ

(v) A = {1, 2, 3}, B = Φ.

So, A ∩ B = Φ

**6. If A = {3, 5, 7, 9, 11}, B = {7, 9, 11, 13}, C = {11, 13, 15} and D = {15, 17}; find **

**(i) A ∩ B **

**(ii) B ∩ C **

**(iii) A ∩ C ∩ D **

**(iv) A ∩ C **

**(v) B ∩ D **

**(vi) A ∩ (B C) **

**(vii) A ∩ D **

**(viii)A ∩ (B D) **

**(ix) (A ∩ B) ∩ (B C) **

**(x) (A D) ∩ (B C) **

Solution:

(i) A ∩ B = {7, 9, 11}

(ii) B ∩ C = {11, 13}

(iii) A ∩ C ∩ D = { A ∩ C} ∩ D = {11} ∩ {15, 17} = Φ

(iv) A ∩ C = {11} (v) B ∩ D = Φ

(vi) A ∩ (B C) = (A ∩ B) (A ∩ C) = {7, 9, 11} {11} = {7, 9, 11}

(vii) A ∩ D = Φ

(viii) A ∩ (B D) = (A ∩ B) (A ∩ D) = {7, 9, 11} Φ = {7, 9, 11}

(ix) (A ∩ B) ∩ (B C) = {7, 9, 11} ∩ {7, 9, 11, 13, 15} = {7, 9, 11}

(x) (A D) ∩ (B C) = {3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 17) ∩ {7, 9, 11, 13, 15} = {7, 9, 11, 15}

**7. If A = {x: x is a natural number}, B ={x: x is an even natural number} C = {x: x is an odd natural number} and D = {x: x is a prime number}, find (i) A ∩ B (ii) A ∩ C (iii) A ∩ D (iv) B ∩ C (v) B ∩ D (vi) C ∩ D**

Solution:

A = {x: x is a natural number} = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5 …}

B ={x: x is an even natural number} = {2, 4, 6, 8 …}

C = {x: x is an odd natural number} = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9 …}

D = {x: x is a prime number} = {2, 3, 5, 7 …}

(i) A ∩B = {x: x is a even natural number} = B

(ii) A ∩ C = {x: x is an odd natural number} = C

(iii) A ∩ D = {x: x is a prime number} = D

(iv) B ∩ C = Φ (v) B ∩ D = {2}

(vi) C ∩ D = {x: x is odd prime number}

**8: Which of the following pairs of sets are disjoint **

**(i) {1, 2, 3, 4} and {x: x is a natural number and 4 ≤ x ≤ 6} **

**(ii) {a, e, i, o, u} and {c, d, e, f} **

**(iii) {x: x is an even integer} and {x: x is an odd integer}**

Solution:

(i) {1, 2, 3, 4} {x: x is a natural number and 4 ≤ x ≤ 6} = {4, 5, 6}

Now, {1, 2, 3, 4} ∩ {4, 5, 6} = {4}

Therefore, this pair of sets is not disjoint.

(ii) {a, e, i, o, u} ∩ (c, d, e, f} = {e}

Therefore, {a, e, i, o, u} and (c, d, e, f} are not disjoint.

(iii) {x: x is an even integer} ∩ {x: x is an odd integer} = Φ

Therefore, this pair of sets is disjoint.

**10. If X = {a, b, c, d} and Y = {f, b, d, g}, find **

**(i) X – Y **

**(ii) Y – X **

**(iii) X ∩ Y**

Solution:

(i) X – Y = {a, c}

(ii) Y – X = {f, g}

(iii) X ∩ Y = {b, d}

**11: If R is the set of real numbers and Q is the set of rational numbers, then what is R – Q?**

Solution:

R: set of real numbers

Q: set of rational numbers

Therefore, R – Q is a set of irrational numbers.

**12: State whether each of the following statement is true or false. Justify your answer. (i) {2, 3, 4, 5} and {3, 6} are disjoint sets.**

** (ii) {a, e, i, o, u } and {a, b, c, d} are disjoint sets. **

**(iii) {2, 6, 10, 14} and {3, 7, 11, 15} are disjoint sets. **

**(iv) {2, 6, 10} and {3, 7, 11} are disjoint sets. **

**Solution:**

(i) Statement1 is False As 3 ∈ {2, 3, 4, 5}, 3 ∈ {3, 6} ⇒ {2, 3, 4, 5} ∩ {3, 6} = {3}

(ii) Statement2 is false As a ∈ {a, e, i, o, u}, a ∈ {a, b, c, d} ⇒ {a, e, i, o, u } ∩ {a, b, c, d} = {a}

(iii) Statement3 is true As {2, 6, 10, 14} ∩ {3, 7, 11, 15} = Φ

(iv) Statement4 is true As {2, 6, 10} ∩ {3, 7, 11} = Φ